Chinese Mafia. Gefällt Mal. Musiker/in/Band. Many translated example sentences containing "Chinese mafia" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. als Umschreibung auch als „Chinesische Mafia“ bezeichnet. Sie haben ihre Sitze in Hongkong, Vietnam, Macau, Taiwan und China, operieren aber auch fern.
Übersetzung für "chinesische Mafia" im EnglischThe Chinese Mafia: Organized Crime, Corruption, and Extra-Legal Protection Clarendon Studies in Criminology: readallchips.com: Wang, Peng: Fremdsprachige. suspicion of running a Chinese mafia group involved in gambling, prostitution and drugs, and which dominated the transport of Chinese goods across Europe. Adrian Kim-Fai Kwan, chief inspector for organized crime of the Hongkong Police, will speak about "Triades - the Chinese mafia at Hongkong and worldwide".
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Triads engage in a variety of crimes, from fraud , extortion and money laundering to trafficking and prostitution , and are involved in smuggling and counterfeiting goods such as music, video, software, clothes, watches and money.
Since the first opium bans during the 19th century, Chinese criminal gangs have been involved in worldwide illegal drug trade.
Many triads switched from opium to heroin, produced from opium plants in the Golden Triangle , refined into heroin in China and trafficked to North America and Europe, in the s and s.
The most important triads active in the international heroin trade are the 14K and the Tai Huen Chai.
Triads have begun smuggling chemicals from Chinese factories to North America for the production of methamphetamine , and to Europe for the production of MDMA.
Triads in the United States also traffic large quantities of ketamine. Triads have been engaging in counterfeiting since the s. During the s and s, they were involved in counterfeiting currency often the Hong Kong cent piece.
The gangs were also involved in counterfeiting expensive books for sale on the black market. With the advent of new technology and the improvement of the average standard of living, triads produce counterfeit goods such as watches, film VCDs and DVDs and designer apparel such as clothing and handbags.
In , four triad members were arrested for health care fraud in Japan. Triads use numeric codes to distinguish ranks and positions within the gang; the numbers are inspired by Chinese numerology and based on the I Ching.
Law enforcement and intel have it that the Vanguard may actually hold the highest power or final word. A military commander also known as a Red Pole , overseeing defensive and offensive operations, is ; 49 denotes a soldier , or rank-and-file member.
The White Paper Fan provides financial and business advice , and the Straw Sandal is a liaison between units. Blue Lanterns are uninitiated members, equivalent to Mafia associates, and do not have a designating number.
According to De Leon Petta Gomes da Costa, who interviewed triads and authorities in Hong Kong, most of the current structure is a vague, low hierarchy; the traditional ranks and positions no longer exist.
Similar to the Indian thuggees or the Japanese yakuza , triad members participate in initiation ceremonies. After drinking a mixture of wine and blood from the animal or the candidate , the member passes beneath an arch of swords while reciting the triad's oaths.
The paper on which the oaths are written will be burnt on the altar to confirm the member's obligation to perform his duties to the gods. Three fingers of the left hand are raised as a binding gesture.
Similar to triads, Tongs originated independently in early immigrant Chinatown communities. The word means "social club", and tongs are not specifically underground organizations.
The first tongs formed during the second half of the 19th century among marginalized members of early immigrant Chinese-American communities for mutual support and protection from nativists.
Modeled on triads, they were established without clear political motives and became involved in criminal activities such as extortion, illegal gambling, drug and human trafficking, murder and prostitution.
Triads were also active in Chinese communities throughout Southeast Asia. When Malaysia and Singapore with the region's largest population of ethnic Chinese became crown colonies , secret societies and triads controlled local communities by extorting protection money and illegal money lending.
Many conducted blood rituals, such as drinking one another's blood, as a sign of brotherhood; others ran opium dens and brothels.
Remnants of these former gangs and societies still exist. Due to government efforts in Malaysia and Singapore to reduce crime, the societies have largely faded from the public eye particularly in Singapore.
Triads were also common in Vietnamese cities with large Chinese especially Cantonese and Teochew communities. During the French colonial period , many businesses and wealthy residents in Saigon particularly in the Chinatown district and Haiphong were controlled by protection-racket gangs.
With Vietnamese independence in , organized crime activity was drastically reduced as Ho Chi Minh 's governments purged criminal activity in the country.
According to Ho, abolishing crime was a method of protecting Vietnam and its people. Diem banned brothels, massage parlours, casinos and gambling houses, opium dens, bars, drug houses and nightclubs, all establishments frequented by the triads.
The government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam purged and imprisoned organized criminals, including triads, in the Haiphong and Hanoi areas.
With pressure from Ho Chi Minh's police, Triad affiliates had to choose between elimination or legality. During the Vietnam War , the triads were eliminated in the north; in the south, Republic of Vietnam corruption protected their illegal activities and allowed them to control US aid.
During the s and s, all illegal Sino-Vietnamese activities were eliminated by the Vietnamese police. They are often involved in migrant smuggling.
In Australia, the major importer of illicit drugs in recent decades has been 'The Company', according to police sources in the region. China's economic reforms have been accompanied by a surge of social problems, such as ineffective legal institutions, booming black markets and rampant corruption.
This has resulted in the rise of extra-legal means of protection and enforcement: such is the demand for protection that cannot be fulfilled by state-sponsored institutions.
This book develops a new socio-economic theory of mafia emergence, incorporating Granovetter's argument on social embeddedness into Gambetta's economic theory of the mafia, to suggest that the rise of the Chinese mafia is primarily due to the negative influence of guanxi a Chinese version of personal connections on the effectiveness of the formal legal system.
This interplay has two major consequences. First, the weakened ability of the formal legal system sees street gangsters the 'Black Mafia' providing protection and quasi law enforcement.
Second, it allows for escalating abuse of power by public officials; as a result, corrupt officials the 'Red Mafia' sell public appointments, exchange illegal benefits with businesses and protect local gangs.
Together, these outcomes have seen street gangs shift their operations away from traditional areas e. A study of crime and deviance located within a fast growing economy, The Chinese Mafia offers a unique understanding of these activities within contemporary Chinese society and a new perspective for understanding the interaction between corruption and organized crime.
It will be of interest to academics and students engaged in the fields of criminology and criminal justice, sociology, and political science, with particular interest for those researching China and Chinese politics and governance.
His research interests include organized crime, police corruption, military corruption and extra-legal governance.Peng Wang's The Chinese Mafia examines the rise of mainland Chinese organized crime and the political-criminal nexus (collusion between gangs and corrupt police officers) in reform and opening era of China. But the man born John Willis, the "White Devil" who would become a crime boss for a sect of the Chinese Mafia, ended up loyal to a group of people far different from the Boston natives he grew up. Triad, Term used variously for secret societies in Qing-dynasty China (and sometimes earlier), for modern Chinese crime gangs, and for crime gangs of other Asian nationals operating in their own countries or abroad. A secret society with the name Triad started operating in the early 19th century in southern China, where it took root and spread. The Chinese Mafia is organized crime which is ethnically Chinese. The Chinese Mafia is not a single organization, but consists of various types of organized crime groups. Some of them were founded in China itself and others were founded overseas by Chinese immigrants or their descendants. Most of them are Triads and in turn most of the Triads are Chinese. A triad is a Chinese transnational organized crime syndicate based in Greater China and has outposts in various countries with significant overseas Chinese populations. The Hong Kong triad is distinct from mainland Chinese criminal organizations. In ancient China, the triad was one of three major secret societies. It established branches in Macau, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese communities overseas. Known as "mainland Chinese criminal organizations", they are of two major types: dark forces and b.